Exercise 14 Make up sentences and translate them.

Shall he open the window?
I read?
we translate the sentence?
you stay here?
they go to the Zoo on Sunday?

Exercise 15 Work in pairs. You are discussing the coming holiday. Compose sentences usingshall we ...? and give answers.

Model: where? – Where shall we go?

seaside / mountains? – Shall we go to the seaside or to the mountains?

1. this country / abroad? 2. when? 3. how long for? 4. fly / train / drive? 5. hotel / camp? 6. stay in one place / travel around? 7. take Granny? 8. go with the Jacksons? 9. what do with the dogs?

Exercise 16 a) Make requests for the following situations.

Model: Will you please open the door for me?

1. hold the door open for you; 2. dial a number for you; 3. translate a letter for you; 4. deliver some flowers for you.

B) Make offers for the following situations.

Model: Shall I carry that for you?

1. An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack. 2. A young woman is shivering and the window is open. 3. Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor.

C) Make suggestions to a friend for the following situations.

Model: Shall we go for a swim?

1. driving to the coast; 2. having a meal out this evening; 3. travelling first class; 4. having a holiday in the Carpathians.

Exercise 17 Paraphrase the following according to the models.

Models: Close the window, please. – Will (would) you close the window? I shall willingly buy it. – I will buy it. I can’t write with this pen. – This pen will not (won’t) write.

1. Come in, please. 2. Pass me the salt, please. 3. Please wait for me a little. 4. Give me your pen, please. 5.We shall willingly work in this firm. 6. I shall willingly go to the theatre this evening. 7. I shall willingly help you. 8. I can’t open the window. 9. I couldn’t turn on the TV set. 10. We can’t work with this machine. 11. She couldn’t close the suitcase.

Exercise 18 Here are some laws of nature. Join the beginnings and the ends. Write a paragraph in which you paraphrase the laws, explain it through a series of supporting sentences, and make your own judgement about it. Feel free to agree or disagree with the idea.

After you have bought something, If anything can go wrong, If there are two good TV shows, If you explain so clearly that nobody can misunderstand, If you throw something away, No matter how much you do, The one who snores The other queue it will. somebody will. they will both be at the same time. will always move faster. will fall asleep first. you will find it somewhere else cheaper. you’ll need it the whole day. you’ll never do enough.

Exercise 19 Which of the following uses ofwillindicate willingness, refusal, a promise, a threat or typical behaviour.

1. I’ll make sure John is informed. 2. Oil will float on water. 3. She won’t listen, she’s so stubborn. 4. Patrick will keep on asking stupid questions. 5. I’ll take your calls for you while you’re out. 6. Either I get the job or I’ll leave the company. 7. Will you call him back when you’ve got a moment? 8. I’ve changed the battery but my mobile phone still won’t work. 9. She will always be the first person to arrive on a Monday morning. 10. If you don’t sign the new contract we’ll have to move you to another post. 11. Would you put your name and company in the visitor’s book, please? 12. Before the use of computers we would have to record all our data on card files.

Should / Would

Обов’язок Obligation Everybody should wear car seat belt.
Умовні речення Conditionals, Subjunctive If I knew her name, I would tell you. It’s important that she should talk to me.
Запитання, пропозиції (менш категорично ніж will та shall) Requests and Offers Would you open the window, please? Would you like tea, or would you prefer coffee? Should I change my job or stay where I am?
Вірогідність Probability We’re spending the winter in Florida. That should be nice.
Узгодження часів Sequence of Tenses They asked what they should do. There was a chance that my letter would arrive in time.
Повторні дії у минулому Typical Behaviour in the Past She would dust and iron, but she didn’t like doing windows. The car wouldn’t start again this morning.